Abstract: Background: Little is known about frailty among patients hospitalized with heart failure (HF). To date, the limited information on frailty in HF is based on a unidimensional view of frailty, in
which only physical aspects are considered when determining frailty. The aims of this study were to study different dimensions of frailty (physical, psychological and social) in patients with HF and the
effect of different dimensions of frailty on the incidence of heart failure. Methods: The study used a cross-sectional design and included 965 patients hospitalized for heart failure and 164 healthy controls.
HF was defined according to the ESC guidelines. The Tilburg Frailty Indicator (TFI) was used to assess frailty. Probit regression analyses and chi-square statistics were used to examine associations
between the occurrence of heart failure and TFI domains of frailty. Results: Patients diagnosed with frailty were 15.3% more likely to develop HF compared to those not diagnosed with frailty (p < 0.001).
An increase in physical, psychological and social frailty corresponded to an increased risk of HF of 2.9% (p < 0.001), 4.4% (p < 0.001) and 6.6% (p < 0.001), respectively. Conclusions: We found evidence
of the association between different dimensions of frailty and incidence of HF.